In the brain the role of PCSK9 is still controversial and may be either pro-apoptotic or protective in the development of the nervous system. , A vaccine that targets PCSK9 has been developed to treat high LDL-particle concentrations. Die Serinprotease PCSK9 hat die Funktion, an LDL-Rezeptoren auf der Oberfläche von Leberzellen (Hepatozyten) zu binden und ihren Abbau in den Lysosomen zu fördern.  If PCSK9 does not bind, the receptor will return to the surface of the cell and can continue to remove LDL-particles from the bloodstream. , In addition to its lipoprotein synthetic and pro-atherosclerotic effects, PCSK9 is involved in glucose metabolism and obesity, regulation of re-absorption of sodium in the kidney which is relevant in hypertension.  It has been speculated that this action contributes to the ability of berberine to lower serum cholesterol. PCSK9-Hemmer sind eine Gruppe von Lipidsenkern, deren Wirkung auf der Hemmung des Enzyms PCSK9 (Proproteinkonvertase Subtilisin Kexin Typ 9) beruht.  Initial clinical trials showed positive results of ALN-PCS, which acts by means of RNA interference. , An FDA warning in March 2014 about possible cognitive adverse effects of PCSK9 inhibition caused concern, as the FDA asked companies to include neurocognitive testing into their Phase III clinical trials. , PCSK9 may also have a role in the differentiation of cortical neurons.  Among those inhibitors under development in December 2013 were the antibodies alirocumab, evolocumab, 1D05-IgG2 (Merck), RG-7652 and LY3015014, as well as the RNAi therapeutic inclisiran.  The N-terminal prodomain has a flexible crystal structure and is responsible for regulating PCSK9 function by interacting with and blocking the catalytic domain, which otherwise binds the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. Reduced LDLR levels result in decreased metabolism of LDL-particles, which could lead to hypercholesterolemia. Die vollständigen Gegenanzeigen finden sich in den Fachinformationen des jeweiligen Herstellers. Before the infusions, participants received oral corticosteroids, histamine receptor blockers, and acetaminophen to reduce the risk of infusion-related reactions, which by themselves will cause several side effects. VLP's are viruses that have had their DNA removed so that they retain their external structure for antigen display but are unable to replicate; they can induce an immune response without causing infection. , A possible side effect of the monoclonal antibody might be irritation at the injection site.  Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in the PCSK9 gene result in lower levels of LDL and protection against cardiovascular disease. , This protein plays a major regulatory role in cholesterol homeostasis, mainly by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. However, when PCSK9 binds to the LDLR (through the EGF-A domain), PCSK9 prevents the conformational change of the receptor-ligand complex. The vaccine uses a VLP (virus-like particle) as an immunogenic carrier of an antigenic PCSK9 peptide.  The secretion of PCSK9 is largely dependent on the autocleavage of the signal peptide and N-terminal prodomain, though the N-terminal prodomain retains its association with the catalytic domain. alirocumab; evolocumab; inclisiran; Praluent; Repatha . A PCSK9-sortilin interaction is proposed to be required for cellular secretion of PCSK9. PCSK9-Hemmer haben lipidsenkende Eigenschaften. , In February 2003, Nabil Seidah, a scientist at the Clinical Research Institute of Montreal in Canada, discovered a novel human proprotein convertase, the gene for which was located on the short arm of chromosome 1.  While previous studies indicated that the C-terminal domain was uninvolved in binding LDLR, a recent study by Du et al.  Furthermore, PCSK9 may be involved in bacterial or viral infections and sepsis. In der Folge vermindert sich der Abbau der LDL-Rezeptoren, so dass sich ihre Konzentration in der Zellmembran erhöht, was zu einer Reduktion des LDL-Cholesterins (LDL-C) im Blut führt, da es vermehrt in die Leberzellen aufgenommen wird.  With the new knowledge about the role of PCSK9 and its location in the genome, they sequenced the relevant region of chromosome 1 in people with very low cholesterol and they found nonsense mutations in the gene, thus validating PCSK9 as a biological target for drug discovery. , PCSK9 is a member of the peptidase S8 family. , Parag H. Joshi, Seth S. Martin, and Roger S. Blumenthal, ", very-low-density lipoprotein particle binding, low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding, very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding, extrinsic component of external side of plasma membrane, COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle, positive regulation of receptor internalization, negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle clearance, negative regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity, regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor catabolic process, positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process, positive regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor catabolic process, low-density lipoprotein receptor particle metabolic process, negative regulation of receptor recycling, negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding, negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor activity, negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis involved in cholesterol transport, low-density lipoprotein particle receptor catabolic process, low-density lipoprotein particle clearance, sterol-response element binding proteins (SREBP-1/2), GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169174, GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000044254, "The secretory proprotein convertase neural apoptosis-regulated convertase 1 (NARC-1): liver regeneration and neuronal differentiation", "PCSK9 and LDLR degradation: regulatory mechanisms in circulation and in cells", "Genetic risk, coronary heart disease events, and the clinical benefit of statin therapy: an analysis of primary and secondary prevention trials", "A potential new weapon against heart disease: PCSK9 inhibitors", "These Cholesterol-Reducers May Save Lives. , In humans, PCSK9 was initially discovered as a protein expressed in the brain.  Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in the PCSK9 gene result in lower levels of LDL and protection against cardiovascular disease. The LDL receptor (LDLR), on liver and other cell membranes, binds and initiates ingestion of LDL-particles from extracellular fluid into cells, thus reducing LDL particle concentrations. These include evolocumab (Amgen), bococizumab (Pfizer), and alirocumab (Sanofi/Regeneron Pharmaceuticals). Synonyme: PCSK9-Inhibitor  As a result pharmaceutical manufacturers lowered the prices of these drugs. Pharmakologie. , Peptides that mimick the EGFA domain of the LDLR that binds to PCSK9 have been developed to inhibit PCSK9.
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