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Cross, F. L., ed. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKoester2000 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVermes2008a (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFEhrman2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFredriksen2018 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCrossLivingstone2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFStendahl1963 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFinlan2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDurant2011 (, Françoise Monfrin, entry on "Milan," p. 986, and, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBrown1956 (, "Georgia, Church of." More often, as Shapur decreed, it was intensive organized elimination of the leadership of the church, the clergy. In the several centuries of state sponsored Christianity that followed, pagans and heretical Christians were routinely persecuted by the Empire and the many kingdoms and countries that later occupied the place of the Empire,[56] but some Germanic tribes remained Arian well into the Middle Ages.[57]. [35][36][37][web 5] "Hebrew" Jewish Christians opposed Paul's interpretations,[38] as exemplified by the Ebionites. Reformers in the missionary churches, as well as independent church leaders, agitated for changes in the institutionalized church. In 316, Constatine acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the Donatist controversy. While Jesus limited his message to a Jewish audience in Galilea and Judea, after his death his followers extended their outreach to all of Israel, and eventually the whole Jewish diaspora, believing that the Second Coming would only happen when all Jews had received the Gospel. Growing tensions led to a starker separation that was virtually complete by the time Jewish Christians refused to join in the Bar Khokba Jewish revolt of 132. claim the Armenian Apostolic Church was founded by Gregory the Illuminator of the late third – early fourth centuries while they trace their origins to the missions of Bartholomew the Apostle and Thaddeus (Jude the Apostle) in the 1st century. Though the religious motives were never unrelated, the primary cause of the persecution was political. African Christianity thus blossomed from the seeds planted by western Missionaries, and it developed its cultural identity. Why might there be fewer Christians in Northern Africa? [47] Although lasting only a year,[48] the Decian persecution was a severe departure from previous imperial policy that Christians were not to be sought out and prosecuted as inherently disloyal. In AD 301, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to declare Christianity as its state religion, following the conversion of the Royal House of the Arsacids in Armenia. According to Krister Stendahl, the main concern of Paul's writings on Jesus' role and salvation by faith is not the individual conscience of human sinners and their doubts about being chosen by God or not, but the main concern is the problem of the inclusion of Gentile (Greek) Torah-observers into God's covenant. The Church in Alexandria grew quickly in the 3rd century, and Alexandria's Bishop earned the title of Pope, and he was recognized as the senior Bishop in Egypt. He knew they were poor and that the bishop would be hard-pressed to find the money. [30][15][23][31] Over 40 churches were established by 100,[23][31] most in Asia Minor, such as the seven churches of Asia, and some in Greece and Italy. Christianity originated in Jewish Palestine, a province of the Roman Empire. In Christianity, the idea of the trinity is three in one. The Church of the East had its inception at a very early date in the buffer zone between the Parthian and Roman Empires in Upper Mesopotamia, and Edessa (now Şanlıurfa) in northwestern Mesopotamia was from apostolic times the principal center of Syriac-speaking Christianity. Until the decline of the Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes who had migrated there (with the exceptions of the Saxons, Franks, and Lombards, see below) had converted to Christianity. In the 5th century it endorsed the doctrine of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431, especially following the Nestorian Schism after the condemnation of Nestorius for heresy at the First Council of Ephesus. [62][64] Thus some Arian Christians in the west used the vernacular languages, in this case including Gothic and Latin, for services, as did Christians in the eastern Roman provinces, while most Christians in the western provinces used Latin. While the rulers of the Second Persian empire (226-640) also followed a policy of religious toleration to begin with, they later gave Christians the same status as a subject race. [61] Many of them, notably the Goths and Vandals, adopted Arianism instead of the Trinitarian (a.k.a. New beliefs and practices were introduced to a wide variety of people by the spread of Christianity, Buddhism and Islam. Nicene or orthodox) beliefs that were dogmatically defined by the Church Fathers in the Nicene Creed and Council of Chalcedon. [44] According to Will Durant, the Christian Church prevailed over paganism because it offered a much more attractive doctrine, and because the church leaders addressed human needs better than their rivals. In 212, universal citizenship had been granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire, and with the edict of Decius enforcing religious conformity in 250, Christian citizens faced an intractable conflict: any citizen who refused to participate in the empire-wide supplicatio was subject to the death penalty. [web 7], According to Indian Christian traditions, following previous migration by Jews,[52] Christianity arrived along the southern Indian Malabar Coast via Thomas the Apostle in 52 AD[53] and from this came Thomasine Christianity.

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