The purpose of this Resource Page is to provide designers with information, guidance and resources so that they will be more capable of designing wind-resistant and wind-driven water-resistant envelopes. Wind-resistant design depends on all of the combined factors as well as the quality of the materials and workmanship. The high-wind performance of office building envelopes has historically been poor. A best practice for protecting a structure and its occupants from flying debris are walls constructed with ICF. Obviously a masonry building should be stronger than a wooden building. The buildings that survived were both lucky and well built. 9), GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS – WOODEN WALLS The roof framing transfers lateral loads to the shear walls. All Rights Reserved. To download this file, please fill out this form. Should the shed roof go, its tendency to take the galvanized from the main roof with it would not be as great. (ii) Terrain roughness determined by the surrounding buildings or trees and, height abd size of the Left standing, however, was a ICF home built in 2004. (Fig. The information in this booklet is provided for reference only. Types of bases recommended are integral units, which are cast into concrete with a minimum of 12 Ga. with a 7 Ga. thickness in high wind exposure areas. 5) or directly to the underside of the top plate for a wood frame wall (or preferably directly to the studs where spacing allows.). Finally, building designers must take the prevailing wind of a region into account. Traditional West Indian hip roofs have no overhangs. These structures were not particularly suited to the tropical environment. 5. The remainder of the ring beam is poured around the steel reinforcing and the wood joist. Also, the strength of insulated concrete walls reduces the lateral twists and damage to non-structural elements. 3). That is to say that conceptually the shed roof would be blown away and the main roof would stay intact. A strong continuous load path is critical to holding the roof, walls, floors, and foundation together during a strong wind event of winds of over 200 mph. 2. When anchoring wooden and masonry walls to concrete labs and foundations, anchor the walls every three to four feet (maximum) with a steel connector (anchor bolt or re-bar) from the wall to the foundation. (Fig. COLUMN BASES AND SHED ROOFS (Fig. The key element here is to again stress the importance of securely anchoring the building to the foundations. INTRODUCTION A wind-resistant building must also have the strength to stop flying debris from penetrating the wall system and threaten lives. The value of choosing Fox Blocks ICF construction was demonstrated in 2013, when a powerful EF5 tornado, with estimated speeds of 210 mph, attacked Moore, Oklahoma. Unfortunately, many times in the past, this type of connector is the only type available on the island. (See guide specifications on back cover). These buildings are relatively less expensive to build, when compared with conventional construction and provide very large, unencumbered spaces within. Wind-resistant construction is essential for protecting a building and its occupants from disastrous outcomes during strong wind events. These porches and galleries are attached to the walls of the main roof and supported by columns along the outside edge, which gives them secure anchorage. 14). The floor system is part of the continuous path that transfers the loads to the shear walls in the floors below or to the foundation. The following discussion will take you through some typical ways of developing anchorage systems within wood and masonry buildings. 4), In wooden framed roofs the end of the rafters should be strapped (with a 12 Ga. Galvanized metal hurricane strap) from the top of the rafter to the top plate if the plate is attached to a concrete ring beam, (Fig. The architectural heritage of the Virgin Islands has its roots in the historical architecture of Northern Europe and New England due to the colonization and trading patterns starting in the seventeen century. Wall systems constructed with Fox Blocks insulated concrete forms (ICFs ) ensure a wind-resistant structure with a strong continuous load path that holds the roof, walls, floors, and foundation together during an intense wind event. These structural components include diaphragms and shear walls. Buildings constructed with Fox Block ICF maintain their integrity during intense winds of over 200 mph and resist projectile debris moving over 100 mph. When designing a wind-resistant building, engineers can choose various structural components and combine them into what the building code calls a main wind-force resisting system. If you are dealing with wooden walls, the bottom plates should be strapped to the studs and securely attached to the floor. 13), NOT recommended is the adjustable type post base, which is attached to an anchor bolt set in the slab after it has been poured. LESSONS FROM TRADITIONAL WEST INDIAN ARCHITECTURE MASONRY WALLS As we travel around the islands we see that it is these traditional buildings, that as a group, have survived the storm best. Copyright ©2019 Airlite Plastics Company & Fox Blocks. In conjunction with this failure, as the shed roof blows away, its connection to the flashing between the galvanized shed and main roof becomes a significant detail. The principal loss of shed roofs that I have observed has been from the failure of the post base connectors, which has been discussed. Design Guidelines for Hurricane Resistant Buildings. Recommended bases: Manufacturers names are only used for ease in identifying types of products. (Fig. Again and again we have seen examples of both islands where this material is still intact. As a result of this storm I have some very specific recommendations as to the type of column bases which should and should not be used. Many shed roofs of traditional design have survived the storm. As we travel about the islands “reading” the damaged and non-damaged structures several observations surface and are worth repeating. (Fig. The steep pitch provided a large volume of air space high in the building, which allowed the hot air to rise, and contributed to the cooling of the structure. Importantly, a report by the Portland Cement Association (PCA) concluded that ICF walls have greater structural capacity and stiffness to withstand the in-plane shear forces of high wind than wood- and steel-framed walls. These post bases have failed in hurricane force winds in two ways: 1. Wind-resistant design is particularly important in hurricane- and tornado-prone regions. As a building covering they work amazingly well both on walls and on roofs. Anchor bolts should be set in the concrete ring beam, at a minimum of 48″ o.c. FEMA’s Building Framing Systems and Best Practices approves the use of common nails to connect roof sheathing to supporting components in areas where wind speeds are less than 100 mph. Don’t worry, once you’ve filled it out, we’ll never ask for your information again. If you are attaching wood frame walls to a concrete slab or masonry foundation wall, the bottom plate should be attached with anchor bolts set into the concrete every three feet on center. A truss rafter is simply two rafters connected with a collar beam. During high winds, building failures often begin with damage to the roof. The basic forms of wind loads and wind pressure are similar to ASCE 7.
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